Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) is Germany’s second-largest state by area, with 47,624 sq km (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population (7.9 million). It forms much of the northwestern part of the country, sharing a border with the Netherlands and also bordering the North Sea. The small city-state of Bremen forms an enclave within Lower Saxony, which also borders eight other German states. The northern part of Lower Saxony is defined by the mostly flat North German Plain, while the state’s Southern area has some hills and low mountains, which reach up to 970 m in elevation in the Harz region. The state was established after World War II by the British Military Government.
Organized in 38 political subdivisions, Lower Saxony has its cultural, political and economic center in Hanover, the state’s largest city and capital. A number of the smaller cities and towns have distinct, historic cores and long histories with the notable exception of Wolfsburg, a city founded as late as 1938, which is today the site of the world headquarters and manufacturing facilities of Volkswagen. The company operates five plants in Lower Saxony and is the state’s largest private sector employer. Hanover is host to a number of important and well-known trade fairs and also has a significant position for the trade and tourism branches. In addition, agriculture plays an important role for Lower Saxony’s economy.
The state features a number of nature parks and other protected areas. There are numerous lakes and rivers, all of which ultimately reach the North Sea. It is thus a favorite destination for travelers looking for good opportunities to hike or cycle.
Lower Saxony borders more neighbors than any other single Bundesland. The state’s principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig (Brunswick), Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Oldenburg, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Wolfsburg, and Göttingen.
The region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide), the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs up until about the 1960s. To the north, the Elbe river separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land (Old Country). Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state’s largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples.
Most of the state’s territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover; the state of Lower Saxony has adopted the coat of arms and other symbols of the former kingdom. It was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946.
Niedersachsen mug – item No. 8 in our exclusive collectible series that will include all German states (Bundesländer). A perfect gift idea for someone who loves Niedersachsen! Printed on both sides. The back side features a brief description of Niedersachsen and the item number.
Beautiful snow-white ceramic coffee mug, glossy and solid. Available for purchase here.
The New Town Hall (Neues Rathaus) or New City Hall in Hanover, Germany, is a city hall and was opened on July 20, 1913, after having been under construction for 12 years. It is a magnificent, castle-like building of the era of Wilhelm II in eclectic style at the southern edge of the inner city (outside of the historic city center of Hanover). The building is embedded in the 10 hectare Maschpark. During World War II, the building was heavily damaged during American bomb raids on the inner city of Hanover. The German state of Niedersachsen was proclaimed in 1946 in the 38 m high hall of the New Town Hall. The Old Town Hall is no longer used as the main seat of administration, but houses businesses and the registry office.
The coat of arms of Lower Saxony shows a white horse (Saxon Steed) on red ground, which is an old symbol of the Saxon people. Legend has it that the horse was a symbol of the Saxon leader Widukind. But this one should have been black. The color has been changed by Christian baptism of Widukind into white. White and red are the other colors (despite to Gold and black) of the Holy Roman Empire symbolizing Christ as the Savior, who is still shown with a white flag with a red cross.